Supported eText Theoretical Foundations NCSeT Typology

Resource Type

Description

Examples

Presentational

Enables the text and accompanying graphics to be presented in varying ways, hence customizable to meet the needs of individual readers

Font size and style, text and background color, line and page length, page layout and juxtaposition with other pages, graphics in relationship to text

Navigational

Provides tools that allow the reader to move within a document or between documents

Within-document links, across-document links, embedded menus, links from other resources such as Table of Contents, Glossary, Bibliography

Translational

Provides a one-to-one equivalent or simplified version that is more accessible or familiar to the reader. May focus on a word, phrase, paragraph, picture, or whole document. Translation may or may not be of the same modality or media.

Synonyms, definitions, digitized or synthesized text-to-speech, alternate language equivalents (Spanish), video of ASL translation, text descriptions for images, captions for video

Explanatory

Provides information that seeks to clarify the what, where, how, or why of some concept, object, process, or event.

 

Clarifications, interpretations, or descriptions that point to causes, operations, components, mechanisms, parts, methods, procedures, context or consequences; list of influencing factors

Illustrative

Provides a visual representation or example of something in the text. Designed to support, supplement or extend comprehension of the text through illustrations or examples.

 

Drawings, photos, simulations, video, photos, reenactments, sounds, music, information that something is representative of its type (“…. is a typical example of…”)

Summarizing

Provides a summarized or condensed way of viewing some feature of the document.

 

Table of contents, concept map, list of key ideas, chronology, timeline, cast of characters, abstract

Enrichment

Provides supplementary information that is not strictly needed to comprehend the text, but adds to the readers’ appreciation or understanding of its importance or historical context

Background information, publication history, biography of the author, footnotes, bibliography, influence on other writers

Instructional

Provides prompts, questions, strategies or instruction designed to teach some aspect of the text or how to read and interpret the text

Tutorials, self-monitoring comprehension questions, annotations, instructional prompts, study guides, embedded study strategies, online mentoring, tips for effective reading

Notational

Provides tools for marking or taking notes on the text to enable later retrieval for purposes of studying or completing assignments.

Electronic highlighting, bookmarking, post-its, margin notes, outlining, drawing. Ways to gather and group these notes for post-reading review.

Collaborative

Provides tools for working or sharing with other readers, the author, or some other audience.

Threaded discussion, online chat, email links, podcasts, blogs

Evaluative

Provides materials, prompts, and assignments designed to assess student learning from the text

Questions, quizzes, tests, surveys, online interviews, assignments leading to products

© 2007 National Center for Supported eText, University of Oregon
From
Anderson-Inman, L. & Horney, M.A. (2007). Supported eText: Assistive technology
through text transformations. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(1), 153-160.

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