NCSeT Typology

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Supported eText NCSeT Typology
NCSeT Typology
This category describes the NCSeT Typology of Resources, beginning with an overview and then descriptions of the eleven specific resource types.

Overview of the NCSeT Typology

The concept of supported text, developed by Anderson-Inman and Horney (1997; 1998) is to describe electronic text that is modified or enhanced in ways that are designed to increase reading comprehension and promote content-area learning.

Navigational Resources

Navigational resources provide tools that allow the reader to move within a document or between documents. Navigational resources can include within-document links, across-document links, embedded menus, and links from other resources such as Table of Contents, Glossary, Bibliography.

Below are screen shots showing a sample of navigational resources.


Explanatory Resources

Explanatory resources provide information that seeks to clarify the what, where, how, or why of some concept, object, process, or event. Examples of explanatory resources include: clarifications, interpretations or descriptions that point to causes, operations, components, mechanisms, parts, methods, procedures, context or consequences. A list of influencing factors can also be an explanatory resource.

Below are screen shots showing a sample of explanatory resources.


Summarizing Resources

Summarizing resources provide a summarized or condensed way of viewing some feature of the document. Summarizing resources might include: a table of contents, concept map, list of key ideas, chronology, timeline, cast of characters, or an abstract.

Below are screen shots showing various types of summarizing resources.


Instructional Resources

Instructional resources provide prompts, questions, strategies or instruction designed to teach some aspect of the text or how to read and interpret the text. Instructional resources might include: tutorials, self-monitoring comprehension questions, annotations, instructional prompts, study guides, embedded study strategies, online mentoring, or tips for effective reading.

Below are screen shots showing various types of instructional resources.


Collaborative Resources

Collaborative resources provide tools for working or sharing with other readers, the author, or some other audience. Collaborative resources might include: a threaded discussion, online chat, email links, podcasts, or  blogs.

Below are screen shots showing various types of collaborative resources.


Presentational Resources

Presentational resources enable the text and accompanying graphics to be presented in varying ways, hence customizable to meet the needs of individual readers. Examples of presentational resources include: font size and style, text and background color, line and page length, page layout and juxtaposition with other pages, and graphics in relationship to text.

Below are screen shots showing a sample of presentational resources.


Translational Resources

Translational resources provide a one-to-one equivalent or simplified version that is more accessible or familiar to the reader. Resources may focus on a single word, phrase, paragraph, picture, or whole document. Translational resources may use the same or different modality or media as the text being translated. Some examples of translational resources include: synonyms, definitions, digitized or synthesized text-to-speech, alternate language equivalents (Spanish), video of ASL translation, simplified version at lower reading level, text descriptions for images, and captions for video.

Below are screen shots showing a sample of translational resources.


Illustrative Resources

Illustrative resources provide a visual representation of something in the text. They are designed to support, supplement or extend comprehension of the text through illustrations that help readers visualize the content. Many illustrative resources appear using media other than text, but text can also be used to illustrate concepts and processes. Some examples of illustrative resources include: drawings, photos, simulations, video, photos, reenactments, sounds, music, and information that something is representative of its type (“…. is a typical example of…”).

Below are screen shots showing a sample of illustrative resources.


Enrichment Resources

Enrichment resources provide supplementary information that is not strictly needed to comprehend the text, but adds to the readers’ appreciation or understanding of its importance or historical context. Enrichment resources might include: background information, publication history, biography of the author, footnotes, bibliography, or impact of the author on other writers.

Below are screen shots showing various types of enrichment resources.


Notational Resources

Notational resources provide tools for marking or taking notes on the text to enable later retrieval for purposes of studying or completing assignments. Notational resources might include: electronic highlighting, bookmarking, post-its, margin notes, outlining, drawing, or ways to gather and group these notes for post-reading review.

Below are screen shots showing various types of notational resources.


Evaluative Resources

Evaluative resources provide materials, prompts, and assignments designed to assess student learning from the text. Evaluative resources can include: questions, quizzes, tests, surveys, online interviews, and assignments leading to products.

Below are screen shots showing various types of evaluative resources.