Supported eText
Supported eText

Supported eText Bookmarks at

screenshots of pageThis annotated collection of Web sites illustrates various types of supported etext. Some are individual documents, stories, or books. Some are collections or libraries providing access to multiple examples.


Overview of the NCSeT Typology

The concept of supported text, developed by Anderson-Inman and Horney (1997; 1998) is to describe electronic text that is modified or enhanced in ways that are designed to increase reading comprehension and promote content-area learning.


NCSeT Typology of Supported eText Resources

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The concept of “supported text” was first developed by Anderson-Inman and Horney (1998; 1999) to describe electronic text that is modified or enhanced in ways that support student comprehension and extend student learning.
Presentational Resources

Presentational resources enable the text and accompanying graphics to be presented in varying ways, hence customizable to meet the needs of individual readers. Examples of presentational resources include: font size and style, text and background color, line and page length, page layout and juxtaposition with other pages, and graphics in relationship to text.

Below are screen shots showing a sample of presentational resources.


eText and Students with Disabilitiies
To gain meaningful access to the general education curriculum, students with disabilities must overcome the substantial barriers to learning imposed the by the printed materials they are asked to read. Textbooks, workbooks, instruction manuals, novels, short stories, essays, reference books, newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, and worksheets, all present difficulties to readers challenged by text and these differences can impede or prevent students with disabilities from learning. Technology can assist with such difficulties by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text.
Navigational Resources

Navigational resources provide tools that allow the reader to move within a document or between documents. Navigational resources can include within-document links, across-document links, embedded menus, and links from other resources such as Table of Contents, Glossary, Bibliography.

Below are screen shots showing a sample of navigational resources.


Translational Resources

Translational resources provide a one-to-one equivalent or simplified version that is more accessible or familiar to the reader. Resources may focus on a single word, phrase, paragraph, picture, or whole document. Translational resources may use the same or different modality or media as the text being translated. Some examples of translational resources include: synonyms, definitions, digitized or synthesized text-to-speech, alternate language equivalents (Spanish), video of ASL translation, simplified version at lower reading level, text descriptions for images, and captions for video.

Below are screen shots showing a sample of translational resources.


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